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MRU memory allocator using fixed size memory pools for immediate memory allocation favoring hot cache regions over cold cache ones. This dramatically reduces the time needed to create a new session. Work factoring , such as multiple accept at once, and the ability to limit the number of accept per iteration when running in multi-process mode, so that the load is evenly distributed among processes.

CPU-affinity is supported when running in multi-process mode, or simply to adapt to the hardware and be the closest possible to the CPU core managing the NICs while not conflicting with it. Tree-based storage , making heavy use of the Elastic Binary tree I have been developping for several years. This is used to keep timers ordered, to keep the runqueue ordered, to manage round-robin and least-conn queues, to look up ACLs or keys in tables, with only an O log N cost.

This further optimizes the ebtree usage. Checkpointing is used when an end of buffer is reached with an incomplete header, so that the parsing does not start again from the beginning when more data is read. Content analysis is optimized to carry only pointers to original data and never copy unless the data needs to be transformed. This ensures that very small structures are carried over and that contents are never replicated when not absolutely necessary.

All these micro-optimizations result in very low CPU usage even on moderate loads. This explains why the tuning of the Operating System is very important. This is the reason why we ended up building our own appliances , in order to save that complex and critical task from the end-user.

In production, HAProxy has been installed several times as an emergency solution when very expensive, high-end hardware load balancers suddenly failed on Layer 7 processing. Some hardware load balancers still do not use proxies and process requests at the packet level and have a great difficulty at supporting requests across multiple packets and high response times because they do no buffering at all.

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On the other side, software load balancers use TCP buffering and are insensible to long requests and high response times. A nice side effect of HTTP buffering is that it increases the server's connection acceptance by reducing the session duration, which leaves room for new requests. There are 3 important factors used to measure a load balancer's performance: The session rate This factor is very important, because it directly determines when the load balancer will not be able to distribute all the requests it receives. It is mostly dependant on the CPU. This factor is measured with varying object sizes, the fastest results generally coming from empty objects eg: HTTP , or response codes.

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The session concurrency This factor is tied to the previous one. Generally, the session rate will drop when the number of concurrent sessions increases except with the epoll or kqueue polling mechanisms. The slower the servers, the higher the number of concurrent sessions for a same session rate. If a load balancer receives sessions per second and the servers respond in ms, then the load balancer will have concurrent sessions. This number is limited by the amount of memory and the amount of file-descriptors the system can handle.

In practise, socket buffers in the system also need some memory and sessions per GB of RAM is more reasonable. Also they don't process any data so they don't need any buffer.

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Moreover, they are sometimes designed to be used in Direct Server Return mode, in which the load balancer only sees forward traffic, and which forces it to keep the sessions for a long time after their end to avoid cutting sessions before they are closed. The data forwarding rate This factor generally is at the opposite of the session rate. Highest data rates are achieved with large objects to minimise the overhead caused by session setup and teardown. Large objects generally increase session concurrency, and high session concurrency with high data rate requires large amounts of memory to support large windows.

High data rates burn a lot of CPU and bus cycles on software load balancers because the data has to be copied from the input interface to memory and then back to the output device. Hardware load balancers tend to directly switch packets from input port to output port for higher data rate, but cannot process them and sometimes fail to touch a header or a cookie.

Haproxy on a typical Xeon E5 of can forward data up to about 40 Gbps.

10 best French restaurants in Paris

A load balancer's performance related to these factors is generally announced for the best case eg: This is not because of lack of honnesty from the vendors, but because it is not possible to tell exactly how it will behave in every combination. So when those 3 limits are known, the customer should be aware that it will generally perform below all of them. A good rule of thumb on software load balancers is to consider an average practical performance of half of maximal session and data rates for average sized objects.

Reliability - keeping high-traffic sites online since Being obsessed with reliability, I tried to do my best to ensure a total continuity of service by design. It's more difficult to design something reliable from the ground up in the short term, but in the long term it reveals easier to maintain than broken code which tries to hide its own bugs behind respawning processes and tricks like this. In single-process programs, you have no right to fail: There has not been any such bug found in stable versions for the last 13 years , though it happened a few times with development code running in production.

HAProxy has been installed on Linux 2. Obviously, they were not directly exposed to the Internet because they did not receive any patch at all.

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The kernel was a heavily patched 2. On such systems, the software cannot fail without being immediately noticed! Right now, it's being used in many Fortune companies around the world to reliably serve billions of pages per day or relay huge amounts of money.

Some people even trust it so much that they use it as the default solution to solve simple problems and I often tell them that they do it the dirty way. Such people sometimes still use versions 1. HAProxy is really suited for such environments because the indicators it returns provide a lot of valuable information about the application's health, behaviour and defects, which are used to make it even more reliable. As previously explained, most of the work is executed by the Operating System. For this reason, a large part of the reliability involves the OS itself.

Latest versions of Linux 2. However, it requires a bunch of patches to achieve a high level of performance, and this kernel is really outdated now so running it on recent hardware will often be difficult though some people still do.

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Some people prefer to run it on Solaris or do not have the choice. Solaris 8 and 9 are known to be really stable right now, offering a level of performance comparable to legacy Linux 2. Solaris 10 might show performances closer to early Linux 2. FreeBSD shows good performance but pf the firewall eats half of it and needs to be disabled to come close to Linux.

The reliability can significantly decrease when the system is pushed to its limits. This is why finely tuning the sysctls is important.

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There is no general rule, every system and every application will be specific. However, it is important to ensure that the system will never run out of memory and that it will never swap. A correctly tuned system must be able to run for years at full load without slowing down nor crashing. Security - Not even one intrusion in 13 years Security is an important concern when deploying a software load balancer.

Reserve a table, if you can, but unless you plan far in advance, you'll have to join the crowd on the sidewalk waiting for a spot in line. The small room and portions don't make for a relaxed meal, but one that will surprise and excite. Le Chateaubriand, avenue Parmentier, Paris. Opened by the innovative American couple behind the now-closed private dining club Hidden Kitchen, Verjus is a romantic restaurant is exclusive without being pretentious. Located behind the Palais-Royal, the top-notch food features fresh, seasonal flavors, not to mention one of the best fried chicken dishes in the city, available at the wine bar.

A relative newcomer in the tourist-laden roads of St-Germain, Semilla is a modern eatery features an open kitchen with a distinguished M. With wine obtained from the nearby Derniere Goutte wine shop, Semilla offers small production vintages alongside a large selection of full or half-sized plates.

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You can get out of the three-course meal rut, says Zimbeck, with "comforting, healthy, bright flavors. Semilla, 54 Rue de Seine, Paris. Legendary French chef and restauranteur Joel Robuchon operates two restaurants in Paris, and if Michelin stars are on your itinerary but you never got around to making a booking, L'Atelier de Joel Robuchon is the best bet for a last-minute table. The food is better than the ambiance.

Small delectable plates of suckled pig or caviar with smoked eel potatoes won't break the bank. Or you can splurge on the nine-course tasting menu. Craving a glass of French wine? Les Papilles is the place to go. Les Papilles is a wine shop that doubles as one of the city's most charming restaurants launched by Bertrand Bluy, who gave up a three-Michelin-star post for something more casual in the Latin Quarter. A copious four-course fixed menu features a main dish served family-style out of a copper pot and usually a plate of cheese. The plates change daily. No French culinary experience is complete without the mighty crepe.

With subtle Japanese touches in the decoration and plate presentation salted butter caramel with yuzu , Breizhis, an authentic Breton sit-down creperie, is the authority in Paris.


According to Zimbeck, the overly stuffed buckwheat galettes made with Bordier butter are a world apart from what you'll find at most street-side crepe stands. Reservations are required, as usual, for the best French restaurants in Paris. This article was previously published in It was reformatted and republished in