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Some archaic deities have Italic or Etruscan counterparts , as identified both by ancient sources and by modern scholars. Throughout the Empire, the deities of peoples in the provinces were given new theological interpretations in light of functions or attributes they shared with Roman deities. An extensive alphabetical list follows a survey of theological groups as constructed by the Romans themselves. A lectisternium is a banquet for the gods, at which they appear as images seated on couches, as if present and participating.

In describing the lectisternium of the Twelve Great gods in BC, the Augustan historian Livy places the deities in gender-balanced pairs: Divine male-female complements such as these, as well as the anthropomorphic influence of Greek mythology, contributed to a tendency in Latin literature to represent the gods as "married" couples or as in the case of Venus and Mars lovers. Varro uses the name Dii Consentes for twelve deities whose gilded images stood in the forum. These were also placed in six male-female pairs. A fragment from Ennius , within whose lifetime the lectisternium occurred, lists the same twelve deities by name, though in a different order from that of Livy: The meaning of Consentes is subject to interpretation, but is usually taken to mean that they form a council or consensus of deities.

Varro [9] gives a list of twenty principal gods of Roman religion:. Varro, who was himself of Sabine origin, gives a list of Sabine gods who were adopted by the Romans:. Elsewhere, Varro claims Sol Indiges , who had a sacred grove at Lavinium , as Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo.

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Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana. Even in invocations , which generally required precise naming, the Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than naming them as individuals. Some groups, such as the Camenae and Parcae , were thought of as a limited number of individual deities, even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all periods and all texts.

The following groups, however, are numberless collectives.

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The di indigetes were thought by Georg Wissowa to be Rome's indigenous deities, in contrast to the di novensides or novensiles , "newcomer gods". No ancient source, however, poses this dichotomy, which is not generally accepted among scholars of the 21st century.

The meaning of the epithet indiges singular has no scholarly consensus, and noven may mean "nine" novem rather than "new". Certain honorifics and titles could be shared by different gods, divine personifications, demi-gods and divi deified mortals. Augustus , "the elevated or august one" masculine form is an honorific and title awarded to Octavian in recognition of his unique status, the extraordinary range of his powers, and the apparent divine approval of his principate. After his death and deification, the title was awarded to each of his successors.

It also became a near ubiquitous title or honour for various minor local deities, including the Lares Augusti of local communities, and obscure provincial deities such as the North African Marazgu Augustus. This extension of an Imperial honorific to major and minor deities of Rome and her provinces is considered a ground-level feature of Imperial cult. Augusta , the feminine form, is an honorific and title associated with the development and dissemination of Imperial cult as applied to Roman Empresses , whether living, deceased or deified as divae.

The first Augusta was Livia , wife of Octavian , and the title is then shared by various state goddesses including Bona Dea , Ceres , Juno , Minerva , and Ops ; by many minor or local goddesses; and by the female personifications of Imperial virtues such as Pax and Victoria. Work performed by slaves falls into five general categories: Textile and clothing production was a major source of employment. Both textiles and finished garments were traded among the peoples of the Empire, whose products were often named for them or a particular town, rather like a fashion "label".

Economic historians vary in their calculations of the gross domestic product of the Roman economy during the Principate.

List of Roman deities

The GDP per capita of Italy is estimated as 40 [67] to 66 percent [68] higher than in the rest of the Empire, due to a more advanced level of urbanization and trade, as well as tax transfers from the provinces and the concentration of elite income in the heartland. In the Scheidel —Friesen economic model, the total annual income generated by the Empire is placed at nearly 20 billion HS , with about 5 percent extracted by central and local government.

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Households in the top 1. Another 20 percent went to about 10 percent of the population who can be characterized as a non-elite middle. The remaining "vast majority" produced more than half of the total income, but lived near subsistence. Italic numbers not directly given by the authors; they are obtained by multiplying the respective value of GDP per capita by estimated population size. Angus Maddison is the only economist cited who offers a detailed breakdown of the national disposable income NDI of the various parts of the Roman Empire. His "highly provisional" estimate see right relies on a low-count of the Roman population of only 44 million at the time of the death of Augustus in 14 AD.

However, Italia, which was not administered as a province, enjoyed a higher per capita income than any one of them. Taxes might be specific to a province, or kinds of properties such as fisheries or salt evaporation ponds ; they might be in effect for a limited time. The primary source of direct tax revenue was individuals, who paid a poll tax and a tax on their land, construed as a tax on its produce or productive capacity. A major source of indirect-tax revenue was the portoria , customs and tolls on imports and exports, including among provinces.

Low taxes helped the Roman aristocracy increase their wealth, which equalled or exceeded the revenues of the central government. An emperor sometimes replenished his treasury by confiscating the estates of the "super-rich", but in the later period, the resistance of the wealthy to paying taxes was one of the factors contributing to the collapse of the Empire. With the conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War in 63 BC, the Roman Republic now incorporated the Kingdom of Pontus , Cilicia , most of Syria , and the island of Crete into its growing dominion, as well as turning the Kingdom of Judea into a client state.

Both Cicero and Strabo related how at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy XII Auletes BC his kingdom received an annual revenue of 12, talents , the equivalent of 75 million denarii, or million sesterces. The revenues garnered in Egypt in 80 BC alone was seven times the amount of tax money contemporary Roman Gaul offered to the Roman coffers following its conquest by Julius Caesar , a mere 40 million sesterces.

During the 1st century AD, the total value of imported goods form the maritime trade coming from the Indian Ocean region including the silk and spice trade was roughly 1, million sesterces, allowing the Roman state to garner million sesterces of that figure in tax revenue. The financial crisis of 33AD is largely considered to be caused by policies that Tiberius took in order to limit the aristocrats' wealth and land-ownership, and done in response to Augustus 's massive private and public expenditures.

Prior to 33AD, Augustus engaged in lavish spending in the public and private sector, while greatly encouraging land ownership and investment in real estate. As a result, he aggressively engaged in a massive extension of credit into the real estate and public sector, and engaged in riskier and riskier loans. He engaged in heavy austerity policies such as ordering for all loans be paid off immediately, and began confiscating property from the wealthy land-owners.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roman currency and Roman finance. Mining in Roman Britain.


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Roman commerce , Indo-Roman trade and relations , and Sino-Roman relations. Economy, Society and Culture.

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Is it employed merely for marketing purposes, or to denounce the invasion of American culture and a certain taste for scandal? If advertising tactics and the seduction of the reader are undeniable elements of such novels, these writers nevertheless consciously sabotage the process of betrayal, transforming it into a source of reflection about reading and writing. Chavance lui demande de prendre un nom comme Remington ou Underwood: L'intrigue du roman est novatrice: L'histoire de la naissance du roman est connue: C'est quand les masques tombent que l'on peut parler de trahison.

C'est sur le livre qu'on peut cracher Vian a atteint son but:

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