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Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. Amazon Renewed Refurbished products with a warranty. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bmbased vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B.

Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The control of Rhipicephalus microplus Ixodida: Ixodidae is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world.

Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. Leaves from two L. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R.

Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils limonene and carvone showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils.

Thus, the present results showed that L. Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. Piperaceae from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: The mortality of day-old Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper Piper aduncum were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females.

Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate The LC 50 of the hexane extract was 9. Literature reports on natural products active against R. These results indicate that P. Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae on the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in cattle infested naturally in the Mexican tropics. The study was carried out on a ranch in the Mexican tropics.

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Base on the number of adult and immature larvae and nymphs R. Animals in the treated group average of The other group remained as untreated control average of Each group received 4 applications every 14 days. Adult and immature stages of ticks were recorded on days 0, 3, 5, 7 and 14 post-treatment. From the first application treatment to the end of the experiment, animals in the treated group had lower counts P microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics. The physiological roles of polyphosphates poly P recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure.

Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively.

All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea Phytolaccaceae against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: The acaricidal activity of crude extracts and fractions from stems and leaves of Petiveria alliacea Phytolaccaceae was carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus using the larval immersion test LIT and adult immersion test AIT , respectively.

Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of P. Purification of the active stem methanolic extract showed that the activity was present in the n-hexane non-polar fraction. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the chemical composition of the active fraction B samples were mainly composed of benzyltrisulfide BTS and benzyldisulfide BDS.

These metabolites might be responsible for the acaricidal activity of stem extract of P. Our results showed that P. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females.

Pastures were infested with engorged tick females. The ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus , feeding upon a bovine host infected with Babesia bovis. Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus , which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world.

The transmission of B. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. A group of ticks were allowed to feed on a B. RNA was purified from dissected adult female ovaries of both infected and uninfected ticks and a subtracted B. Four thousand ESTs were sequenced from the ovary subtracted library and annotated. The subtracted library dataset assembled into unique contigs and 2, singletons for a total of 2, unigenes, Microarray experiments designed to detect B. We did not detect any transcripts from these microarray experiments that were expressed at a lower level in the infected ovaries compared with the uninfected ovaries.

Using the technique called serial analysis of gene expression, 41 ovarian transcripts from infected ticks were differentially expressed when compared with transcripts of controls. Collectively, our experimental approaches provide the first comprehensive profile of the. A description of the drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the tick Boophilus microplus was carried out as a result of an experiment at the Experimental Station, Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil.

Its objective was to evaluate any repercussions of changing the time of milking of cattle in terms of reduced recontamination of the pastures with the tick. Such possible changes in this daily cattle management routine have recently become a reality since the advent of refrigerated on-farm storage of the milk and non-daily collection by tanker truck. Silencing of a putative immunophilin gene in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus increases the infection rate of Babesia bovis in larval progeny.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan infection can set the stage for dissecting the molecular interactions between the two species. The silencing of a putative immunophilin gene Imnp in female ticks fed on a calf acutely infected with B. Interestingly, Imnp was up-regulated significantly in ovaries of R.

The results also showed that the silencing of a putative Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor Spi gene and a putative lipocalin Lpc gene decreased the fitness of R. The Imnp gene data suggest that this putative immunophilin gene is involved in the defense system of R.

Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa. The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R.

The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity.

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Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 ITS2 gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel VGS gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R.

From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas. Se ha formado un grupo binacional de expertos para tratar estos temas. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de reforzar y mejorar estos programas. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X only. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability. Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line.

Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment.

Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells. Seroepidemiological study of Babesia bovis in support of the Uruguayan Boophilus microplus control programme. Bovine blood samples were collected from a region endemic for Boophilus microplus and consisting of ranches with a cattle population of 76, A total of 1, cattle were bled 1, adults and calves less from 1 year of age from 27 ranches.

Dispersion proportion of ranches with babesia infection was estimated to be A positive ranch was defined as having one or more test-positive animals. Apparent prevalence proportion of cattle with a positive test result within the region was estimated to be 3.


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Incidence based on apparent prevalence in calves less than 1 year of age was estimated to be 2. Neste estudo, teve-se por objetivo conhecer a suscetibilidade desse carrapato a acaricidas em Mato Grosso do Sul. Toll-like receptors in fat body and salivary gland tissues in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

In arthropods the fat body and salivary glands are important organs in the defense system against invading pathogens. In this study, we identified for the first time the presence of TLRs in fat body and salivary gland tissues of cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Our results show that the expression of TLRs in fat body tissue are not found in all cells, but is specific to some cell types, in salivary glands TLRs protein expression occur in acini structure. We suggest that immune pathways are active in both fat body and salivary glands in the tick.

The potential use of TLRs as a target for vaccine formulations against is discussed. Full Text Available Objetivo. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. Las diferencias altamente significativas p microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia. Estimates of repeatability and correlations of hemoparasites infection levels for cattle reared in endemic areas for Rhipicephalus microplus.

Rhipicephalus microplus is a vector of cattle tick fever, a disease caused by the protozoans Babesia bovisand B. These tick-borne pathogens cause considerable losses to Brazilian livestock breeders and represent an obstacle to the expanded use of taurine breeds due to their higher sensitivity to ticks and hemoparasites compared to zebu breeds. Differences in the susceptibility to hemoparasites were also verified within breeds, suggesting that may be possible to select a most resistant phenotype.

Therefore, repeatability of R. Forty-two Canchim females kept on pastures naturally infested by ticks were evaluated for the level of infestation by R. Twenty-four evaluations were performed once a month, for adult female ticks counts and blood samplings. The experimental period was divided into four phases, according to the animals age range: The hemoparasite and tick counts data were transformed for normalization and were analyzed using mixed models. Among three species of hemoparasites studied, A. During phase 3, B. Moreover, the animal age may be an important factor related to resistance against these pathogens.

The data obtained shed more light on the resistance to. A new method for in vitro feeding of Rhipicephalus australis formerly Rhipicephalus microplus larvae: Rhipicephalus microplus is a hard tick that has a major impact on cattle health in tropical and subtropical regions because it feeds on cattle and is implicated in the transmission of pathogens that cause diseases such as bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Presently, acaricides are used to control. The first assessment of the stress inducible defense of Leucaena leucocephala with acaricidal potential effect against Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: Full Text Available Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins.

There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L.

We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production 8.

Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by We demonstrated that L. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae against engorged females of the cattle fever tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus , has a wide geographic distribution across tropical and subtropical regions causing huge economic losses to bovine milk and meat production.

Presently, application of chemical acaricide is the most widely used control strategy but d A reassociation kinetics-based approach was used to reduce the complexity of genomic DNA from the Deutsch laboratory strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus , to facilitate genome sequencing. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct Strategic control of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3. Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant.

The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts Pcattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. It was found that the steers The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R.

The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates. Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals.

Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers.

Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. Tick females bigger than 4. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5, female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning 8: Cortisol was measured by immunoassay EIA and the D.

The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. Gene-enriched draft genome of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus: The genome of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus , an ectoparasite with global distribution, is estimated to be 7.

We report the draft assembly of a tick genome that utilized a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach to capture the repetitive fractions of the genome. Our hybrid approach produced an assembly consisting of 2. We identified 38, putative R. OrthoMCL comparative analysis against 11 selected species including insects and vertebrates identified 10, and 3, protein coding gene loci that are unique to R. We identified the genomic loci of several highly divergent R.

Additionally we report the finding of a novel cytochrome P CYP41 homolog that shows similar protein folding structures to known CYP41 proteins known to be involved in acaricide resistance. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus in Ecuador.

Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where livestock is a principal activity with great veterinary and economic importance. In Ecuador, this hematophagous ectoparasite has been observed between 0 and masl. One of the main tick control measures is the use of acaricides, which have been indiscriminately used worldwide and in Ecuador.

In this country, no studies on acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus have been published. The current study aims to characterise the level of resistance of R. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using three different bioassays: The predictive dose-responses were analysed by binomial logistics regression of the larval survival rate resistance. Resistance levels were studied in larval and adult bioassays, respectively, which were slightly modified for this study.

For larval bioassays based on corrected mortality i. For the adult test, two resistance levels were used i. Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil. Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way.

The Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds.

The pampas deer Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December and January , we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and bovines. Entre dezembro de e janeiro de , foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e bovinos. Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions grooming.

The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.

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The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO VP. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to. Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus -Host Interface: Here we review immunological and molecular determinants that explore the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus -host resistance phenomenon as well as contemplating new insights and future directions to study tick resistance and susceptibility, in order to facilitate interventions for tick control.

Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of and May of Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin 0. At the laboratory the females were separated, weighted and distributed in six groups of 10, in duplicate.

Each group was immersed in 10mL of the solution of the extracts, for two minutes. According to the results, it can be concluded that the extract of eucalipto could be used as acaricide in the control of B. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

O controle de B. The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Canestrini, Acari: Annonaceae graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis L.

Myrtaceae jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf Poaceae capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. O extrato de A.


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Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Canestrini, in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Annonaceae soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis L. Myrtaceae iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf Poaceae holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. The extract of A. The seed extract of A.

Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use.

The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBmGC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. Immune and biochemical responses in skin differ between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Ticks attach to and penetrate their hosts' skin and inactivate multiple components of host responses in order to acquire a blood meal.

Infestation loads with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus , are heritable: In order to elucidate the mechanisms that result in the different outcomes of infestations with cattle ticks, we examined global gene expression and inflammation induced by tick bites in skins from one resistant and one susceptible breed of cattle that underwent primary infestations with larvae and nymphs of R. We also examined the expression profiles of genes encoding secreted tick proteins that mediate parasitism in larvae and nymphs feeding on these breeds.

Importantly, this response is delayed in susceptible hosts. Histopathological analyses of infested skins showed inflammatory reactions surrounding tick cement cones that enable attachment in both breeds, but in genetically tick-resistant bovines they destabilized the cone. The transcription data provided insights into tick-mediated activation of basophils, which have previously been shown to be a key to host resistance in model systems.

Skin from tick-susceptible bovines expressed more transcripts encoding enzymes that detoxify tissues. Interestingly, these enzymes also produce volatile odoriferous compounds and, accordingly, skin rubbings from tick-susceptible bovines attracted significantly more tick larvae than rubbings from resistant hosts.

Moreover, transcripts encoding secreted modulatory molecules by the tick were significantly more. Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. Two herds of steers Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures.

After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. Blood samples were processed to determine: The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments.

This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood.

Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin.

BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination.

The resistance was found in Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound s on R.

Full Text Available The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.

The LC90 of oils from C. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations. Widespread movement of invasive cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus microplus in southern Texas leads to shared local infestations on cattle and deer. Background Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus is a highly-invasive tick that transmits the cattle parasites Babesia bovis and B.

This containment area is threatened by unregulated movements of illegal cattle and wildlife like white-tailed deer WTD; Odocoileus virginianus. Buckets of ash track tephra flux from Halema' uma 'u Crater, Hawai'i. Less appreciated is the ongoing, weak, but continuous output of tephra, primarily ash, from the new open vent in Halema' uma 'u Crater. This tephra holds clues to processes causing the eruption and forming the new crater-in-a-crater, and its flux is important to hazard evaluations.

The setting of the vent—easily accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory HVO —is unusually favorable for neardaily tracking of tephra mass flux during this small prolonged basaltic eruption. Recognizing this, scientists from HVO are collecting ash and documenting how ejection masses, components, and chemical compositions vary through time. The observations occurred during a super-high state never before observed in HU Aqr. The near-infrared observations show a corresponding flux increase of times over previous J and K observations. However, the near-infrared eclipse minimum during this super-high state are the same as seen in previous observations, indicating that the eclipse in the near-infrared is total.

We present a detailed comparison of the EUV and near-infrared emission of HU Aqr as a function of orbital phase and discuss the geometry and physical properties of the high energy and infrared emitting regions. We present EUV phase-resolved photometry and spectroscopy and show that the He emission line is not produced on the heated face of the secondary star, but emanates from the inner illuminated regions of the coupling region and accretion stream.

We comment on the overall structure of the accretion geometry as well. We explore a range in possible input parameters and model assumptions to delineate under what conditions each model may be preferred. II The Second Year Continued from Kato et al. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0. We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa -type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study.

We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the superoutburst of IY UMa. A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods.

We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps. We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group.

We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits. A new mechanism of long-term period variations for W UMa -type contact binaries. W UMa -type contact binaries belong to close binary systems whose components exactly overflow their Roche lobes and share a common convective envelope CCE. In the last twenty years, the long-term variations of their orbital periods have been thought to depend on several mechanisms.

Now, we suggest a new mechanism: The CCE-dominated mechanism is found based on our numerical result, especially at high mass ratios, that the orbital periods P of contact binaries change very much with their fill-out factors f. Because f is taken as a measurement of the thickness of CCE, the physical cause for the variation of P is a mass transfer between CCE and components.

Further, an f-dominated simplification model for this mechanism is introduced. According to it, P may change in a long-term oscillation way with a similar time scale of the thermal modulation, meanwhile q is decreasing slowly till the two components merge. It could be also applied to explain the presence of extremely short period, high mass ratio and deep contact binaries. Therefor, the effect of CCE on the variations of orbital periods may have been underestimated before. Observations and light curve solutions of a selection of middle-contact W UMa binaries. The light curve solutions revealed that the components of each target are of G and K spectral types.

The binaries of the sample have middle-contact configurations whose fillout factors are within the range 0. The only exception is NSVS which is in deeper contact fillout factor of 0. It precisely obeys the relation between mass ratio and fillout factor for deep, low mass ratio overcontact binaries. One of the eclipses of almost all targets except MM Peg is an occultation and their photometric mass ratios and solutions could be accepted with confidence. We found that the target components have almost equal temperatures but differ considerably in size and mass.

The components of the partially-eclipsed MM Peg have close parameters. This subclassification is well-determined for all totally-eclipsed binaries. The targets confirm the trends in which W-subtype systems have smaller periods and lower temperatures than A subtype binaries. The light curves of Broglia , Contr. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component.

Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components.

This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. The asymmetry of the light curves requires a large, single star spot on the smaller, less massive secondary component. The modeled spot varied little during the year range of photometric observations.

Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio e. The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

The variations of the orbital period were analyzed based on 12 new determined times of light minimum together with the others compiled from the literature. Photometric solutions determined with the Wilson-Devinney method suggest that BI CVn is a contact binary with a degree of contact of The asymmetry of the light curves was interpreted by the presence of dark spots on both components, and absolute parameters were determined by combining the photometric elements with the spectroscopic solutions given by Lu.

The observed period decrease can be plausibly explained by a combination of the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. The cyclic period oscillation suggests that BI CVn is a triple system containing a tertiary component with a mass no less than 0.

As in the cases of the other contact binaries e. The classical explosive basaltic eruption spectrum is traditionally defined by the following end member eruption styles: The field use of high-speed cameras has enabled volcanologists to make improved quantifications and more accurate descriptions of these classical eruptions styles and to quantify previously undecipherable activity including activity on the basaltic eruption spectrum between the two defined end members. Explosive activity in at the free surface of the Halema' uma 'u lava lake at Kilauea exhibited features of both sustained Hawaiian fountaining and transient Strombolian explosivity.

Most of this activity is internally triggered by the internal rise of decoupled gas bubbles from below the lake's surface, but external triggering via rock falls, was also observed. Here I identify three styles of bubble bursting and spattering eruptive activity isolated events, clusters of events, and prolonged episodes at the lava lake, and distinguished them based on their temporal and spatial distributions. Isolated events are discrete single bubble bursts that persist for a few tenths of seconds to seconds and are separated by repose periods of similar or longer time scales.

Cluster of events are closely spaced, repeated events grouped around a narrow point source, which persist for seconds to minutes. Prolonged episodes are groupings of numerous events closely linked in space and time that persist for tens of minutes to hours. Analysis of individual events from high-speed camera images indicates that they are made up of up to three phases: Based on the numerical parameters established in this study, the activity was relatively weak i.

We present a detailed analysis of the interesting W UMa binary FI Boo in view of the spectroscopic signature of a third body through photometry, period variation, and a thorough investigation of solution uniqueness. The results were tested by heuristic scanning and parameter kicking to provide the consistent and reliable set of parameters that was used to obtain the initial masses of the progenitors 1. We also investigated the evolutionary status of massive components with several sets of widely used isochrones.

However, it has been neglected in photometric investigations. Here, the first complete light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed using the Wilson and Devinney method. The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. This suggests that UZ CMi is in the thermal relaxation oscillation controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. UZ CMi will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and the contact configuration cannot be broken.

The cyclic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion. The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema' uma 'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between and early After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December , when a period of decreased degassing occurred.

The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth.

Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period 0. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it. Using the lava lake as the hot background source we present MWIR gas analysis of the Kilauea volcanic plume. VizieR Online Data Catalog: In order to construct the O-C diagram to analyze the period change of UY UMa , we have performed a careful search for all available times of light minima.

A total of 76 times of light minima were collected and listed in Table 2. The minimum scatter, 0. The light travel effect produced by the presence of tertiary components can reveal much about the origin and evolution of over-contact binaries. Progress in the analysis of eclipse timing variations is summarized here both from the empirical and the theoretical points of view, and a more extensive investigation of the proposed orbital parameters of third bodies is proposed.

The code we have developed for this, implemented in Python, is set up to handle heuristic scanning with parameter perturbation in parameter space, and to establish realistic uncertainties from the least squares fitting. Future options to be implemented include MCMC and bootstrapping. We present the first precision BVRI light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, and a period study for the high amplitude solar type binary, V Cygni. The light curves have the appearance of an Algol EA type; however, it is made up of dwarf solar type components in a detached mode with a period of only 0.

Flare-like disruptions occur in the light curves following the primary and secondary eclipses possibly due to the line-of-sight track of a gas stream. The more massive star is the gainer, making this system a classic, albeit dwarf, Algol. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa -type dwarf novae.

The eighth year Continuing the project described by Kato et al. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects.

Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts. The measurements were obtained using inch and 1-inch telescopes, respectively.

The observations were performed at the Masaryk University Observatory in Brno 3 nights, inch , and at the private observatory in Brno 16 nights, 1-inch in the Czech Republic from December to June Exposures were v - 60s, b - 30s, y - 30s, green - 30s. For the small aperture telescope, five frames were combined to a single image to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution of a such combined frame is about s. CCD images were calibrated in a standard way dark frame and flat field corrections. The C-Munipack software Motl was used for this processing as well as for differential photometry.

The 4th file contains minima timings of eclipsing binary CL Aur. A revised ephemeris and updated orbital period for EQ Tau have been determined from newly acquired CCD-derived photometric data. A Roche-type model based on the Wilson-Devinney code produced simultaneous theoretical fits of light curve data in three passbands by invoking cold spots on the primary component. These new model fits, along with similar light curve data for EQ Tau collected during the previous six seasons , provided a rare opportunity to follow the seasonal appearance of star spots on a W UMa binary system over nine consecutive years.

Fixed values for q,? With the exception of the season all other light curves produced since then required a spotted solution to address the flux asymmetry exhibited by this binary system at Max I and Max II. At least one cold spot on the primary appears in seven out of twelve light curves for EQ Tau produced over the last nine years, whereas in six instances two cold spots on the primary star were invoked to improve the model fit.

Solutions using a hot spot were less common and involved positioning a single spot on the primary constituent during the , , and seasons. In many industrial areas such as in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, and textile, the use of synthetic dyes has been integral with products such as azo dye, anthrax, and dyestuffs. As such, these industries produce a lot of waste by-products that could contaminate the environment.

Bioremediation, therefore, has become an important emerging technology due to its cost-sustainable, effective, natural approach to cleaning up contaminated groundwater and soil via the use of microorganisms. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation requires the optimisation of parameters used in cultivating the organism. Biodegradation analyses were carried out on a soil spiked with RBBR and supplemented with rice husk as the fungus growth enhancer. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the medium components for the effects on the decolourization of RBBR.

To describe the clinical course of paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease in UMAE of Yucatan. Descriptive review was performed on the records of paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease from 1 November to 30 November The most frequent heart diseases were persistent ductus arteriosus The median intensive care stay was 3 days. The most frequent complications were sepsis 5.

There was a moderate positive correlation between surgical complications and survival or death. The number of surgical patients is lower compared to reference centres for cardiovascular surgery. There is a marked tendency to perform corrective and palliative surgeries in specific disease in patients with added risk or 'bad' cardiac anatomy that prevent full correction at the first attempt. Prospective epidemiological and clinical studies should be conducted to understand the behaviour of congenital heart diseases treated in the region. The orbital period decrease was found to be a rate of The inner and outer critical Roche lobes will contract and cause the contact degree to increase.

Therefore, IK Boo may evolve into a deeper contact system. Furthermore, a possible cyclic variation was found with a period of 9. Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard Uma scoparia , a species of conservation concern. The North American deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard Uma scoparia , a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona.

We sampled individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA sequences for 14 nuclear loci, and found that U. Analyses of genotypes using Bayesian clustering algorithms did not identify discrete populations within U. Using isolation-with-migration IM models and a novel coalescent-based hypothesis testing approach, we estimated that U. The likelihood ratio test and the Akaike Information Criterion consistently rejected nested speciation models that included parameters for migration and population growth of U.

We reject the Neogene vicariance hypothesis for the speciation of U. It is a high-amplitude V 0. As expected, the light curve is asymmetric due to spot activity. Three times of minimum light were calculated, for two primary eclipses and one secondary eclipse, from our present observations. In total, some 26 times of minimum light covering nearly 20 years of observation were used to determine linear and quadratic ephemerides. It is noted that the light curve solution remained in a detached state for every iteration of the computer runs.

A degree radius high latitude white spot faculae was iterated on the primary component. Three new precise epochs of minimum light were determined and a linear and a quadratic ephemeris were computed from these and previous data covering 28 years of observation. The light curves reveal that the system undergoes a brief 20 min totality in the primary eclipse, indicating that CE Leo is a W UMa W-type binary.

Standard magnitudes were found and a simultaneous solution of the B, V, R, I light curves was computed using the new Wilson-Devinney synthetic light curve code which has the capability of automatically adjusting star spots. The solution indicates that the system consists of two early K-type dwarfs in marginal contact with a fill-out factor less than 3 percent. Evidence for the presence of a large 45 deg radius superluminous area on the cooler component is given.

Environmental differences in substrate mechanics do not affect sprinting performance in sand lizards Uma scoparia and Callisaurus draconoides. Running performance depends on a mechanical interaction between the feet of an animal and the substrate. This interaction may differ between two species of sand lizard from the Mojave Desert that have different locomotor morphologies and habitat distributions. Uma scorparia possesses toe fringes and inhabits dunes, whereas the closely related Callisaurus draconoides lacks fringes and is found on dune and wash habitats.

The present study evaluated whether these distribution patterns are related to differential locomotor performance on the fine sand of the dunes and the course sand of the wash habitat. We measured the kinematics of sprinting and characterized differences in grain size distribution and surface strength of the soil in both habitats. Although wash sand had a surface strength The broadly distributed C. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in maximum acceleration or the time to attain maximum speed between species or between substrates.

These results suggest that differences in habitat distribution between these species are not related to locomotor performance and that sprinting ability is dominated neither by environmental differences in substrate nor the presence of toe fringes. Size-resolved chemistry of aerosols produced by Halema' uma 'u eruption , Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. A dense quiescent plume has been emitted continuously from the eruptive vent in Halema' uma 'u crater since March Aerosol particles were sampled near-source in the young plume uma 'u and Pu'u O'o show SO in the same narrow size bin 0.

It is noteworthy that the particles appear not to have grown when the plume has drifted km downwind. The formation of aerosol measured downwind is dominated by oxidation of SO2 to SO in the plume. These solar-type systems are usually detached or semidetached with one or both components under filling their critical Roche lobes. They usually have EA or EB-type light curves unequal eclipse depths, indicating components with substantially different temperatures.

The accepted scenario for these W UMa binaries is that they are undergoing steady but slow angular momentum losses due to magnetic braking as stellar winds blow radially away on stiff bipolar field lines. These binaries are believed to come into stable contact and eventually coalesce into blue straggler type, single, fast rotating A-type stars Guinan and Bradstreet, This is the shortest period PCWB found so far.

Our solutions of light curves separated by some three years give approximately the same physical parameters. However the spots radically change, in temperature, area and position causing a distinctive variation in the shape of the light curves. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar type dwarf system and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries. New photometric observations of a W UMa system, V Aur, were carried out over 10 nights from December 19 to February 8, from which four sets of light curves were obtained.

The light curves show many unusual behavioral features, including changing occultation depths, transit minima, and asymmetric maxima. The four sets of light curves have been separately analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney method. The results suggest a totally eclipsing contact configuration for the system.

Over a surprisingly short time span of only 52 days, the dominant spot distortion phase jumped twice between phases 0. The light-curve variations can be interpreted by the presence of two cool spots on the massive component. Our study demonstrates that the system has been undergoing typical flip-flop activity. Lineage diversification of fringe-toed lizards Phrynosomatidae: Uma notata complex in the Colorado Desert: Delimiting species in the presence of gene flow. Multi-locus nuclear DNA data were used to delimit species of fringe-toed lizards of the Uma notata complex, which are specialized for living in wind-blown sand habitats in the deserts of southwestern North America, and to infer whether Quaternary glacial cycles or Tertiary geological events were important in shaping the historical biogeography of this group.

We analyzed ten nuclear loci collected using Sanger sequencing and genome-wide sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphism SNP data collected using restriction-associated DNA RAD sequencing. Therefore, we conservatively delimit four species-level lineages within this complex U. Both concatenated and coalescent-based estimates of speciation times support the hypotheses that speciation within the complex occurred during the late Pleistocene, and that the geological evolution of the Colorado River delta during this period was an important process shaping the observed phylogeographic patterns.

The dynamical evolution of star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud is nowadays a conundrum which deserves particular attention. In this work, we address such an issue by performing numerical simulations of their orbital motions. In order to do that, we adopted a gravitational potential for the galaxy and the presently known spatial-age-metallicity distribution, and attained their birthplaces by computing their orbital motions backwards for an interval equals to their ages.

We aim at investigating the impact on the metal abundance spatial distribution by considering their original positions instead of the present ones. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: O primeiro eixo integra o tema no desenvolvimento cultural do ser humano, praticando a interdisciplinaridade. No trabalho discutimos em detalhe as quatro etapas. Como resultados, adiantamos que: The summit eruption within Halema' uma 'u crater, Kilauea has been characterized by alternations of passive degassing with two styles of explosive activity, both frequently triggered by rock falls that perturb the free surface of magma in the vent.

In the first, larger rock falls trigger second vesiculation of magma at depths up to m below the free surface ejecting juvenile bomb and lapilli populations of very variable vesicularity. The second, the topic of this presentation, consists of intervals of minutes to tens-of-minutes duration of low fountaining activity often from multiple locations. Vents may migrate with time, first across the free surface to its margins, and then around the margins, in response to convection processes in the underlying melt.

Analysis of short sequences of high-speed, high-resolution video footage shows that the sustained fountaining is maintained by not by a continuous discharge but rather by closely spaced bursting of two-to-five meter-wide bubbles. The light curve contains one superoutburst, eight normal outbursts including a precursor to the superoutburst , and several minioutbursts that are present before—but not after—the superoutburst. The superoutburst began with a precursor normal outburst, and shortly after the peak of the precursor, the system developed large-amplitude superhumps that achieved their maximum amplitude after just three superhump cycles.

The period excess of the initial superhump period relative to the orbital period implies a mass ratio of 0. In addition, our analysis of the variations in eclipse width and depth, as well as the hot spot amplitudes, generally provides substantiation of the thermal-tidal instability model. The K2 data, in conjunction with our ground-based time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry from to , allows us to determine many of the fundamental parameters of this system. In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera a low-cost method.

It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. Although average emissions from the ERZ during this period have been times that of the summit, the relative impact of summit emissions is disproportionately large due to the location of the vent and the plume dispersal pattern to downwind communities. Ambient air quality data show that federal standards have been exceeded frequently in various communities on the south half of the island. In July , the U. Coffee and macadamia nut farmers also reported damage to their fields.

While some livestock farmers reported eye irritation in cattle, more significant damage was observed in the accelerated deterioration of galvanized fencing, gates, pipelines and other infrastructure. The increase in volcanic pollution has spurred health concerns. Em , o Sr. Learning Astronomy by Playing in a Park. The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1, individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 15 percent of males and 22 percent of females and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health….

Basic Concepts of Astronomy: This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel.

The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. A time of minimum light of HJD Using Wilson-Devinney's binary model, we analized the light curves.

MOST observations were obtained to search for photometric non-radial oscillations; none was detected with an upper limit of 0. A single, precise moment of the primary eclipse confirms the progressive shortening of the orbital period. The emergence of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers with lidocaine has transformed the minimally invasive treatment of wrinkles, lines and folds of the face.

Patients can be treated quickly, painlessly and without the need for large doses of lidocaine. Therefore, it is important to scientifically evaluate the merits of lidocaine-containing products over those without. Only 73 subjects completed the follow-up. There were 68 females and 5 males with medium-to-deep nasolabial folds.

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All subjects were randomly injected with the two products on one or the other side of the face. Both products achieved significant improvement in the wrinkle severity score.

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Overall results were slightly better with UJU due to ease of injection, lack of pain and avoidance of topical or parenteral anaesthetic. In all other respects, differences in clinical data were not statistically significant. We determine ages and metallicities using theoretical isochrones, the T1 parameter and the Red Giant Standard method. Excepting IC , all the observed clusters are aged between 1 and 6.

During approximately the first 4 Gyr in the SMC lifetime, the cluster formation rate turned out to be constant. A detailed version of this work can be seen in Piatti et al. We verified the number of questions addressing this topic that were present over the years, as well as the most recurrent subjects. We discussed the results from what is proposed by the official documents regarding the teaching of Astronomy in the Elementary and Secondary Education and we entertain future expectations about the presence of contents of this science in future official examinations.

The Universe in a Box: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had.

The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Treinamento de anastomoses vasculares de baixo custo: Washington photometry of the 5 star clusters Lindsay 32, Lindsay 38, Kron 28, Kron 44 and Lindsay and their surrounding fields located towards the Small Magellanic Cloud SMC is presented for the first time.

From the color-magnitude diagrams, cleaned from field stars contamination, the cluster and SMC field reddenings, ages and metallicities are determined. The results obtained in this work, combined with previous estimates of age and metallicity for other seven clusters, allow us to draw the following conclusions: A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy.